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Figures 5 c and 5 d show the frontier by applying differentiated weights for stands under these alternative uses, respectively, for community use and biodiversity conservation, using as a starting point the same NPV in the UL scenario.
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The model has several potential uses. While the results are useful for planning in FSF, our primary intention is to demonstrate the capability of the model to provide useful information to forest planners. 20006 of stands harvested within Faro State Forest with an increasing number of stands converted to other land uses from current logging centers a and from closer urban centers b.
For simplicity, we assume that the growth and yield of the harvested forest would be sufficient to restore the same merchantable volume in each timber volume class within each stand at the beginning of the second cutting cycle.
Although this work was reviewed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official agency policy.
In a full-blown application of the planning model within an actual forest planning context, it would be possible to use participatory techniques from multicriteria decision analysis to determine the relative weight of competing land uses.
Figure 6 b shows the same results for areas assigned to biodiversity conservation. There are commercial species which, for simplification, we categorize into timber value classes, denoted by.
In the case of community use, we assigned to stands in which older forest fires were identified — a weight equal to two-thirds the weight assigned to stands indicating more recent forest fire activity — equal to 2 and 3, resp.
If the stand is harvested, the timber will travel to at least one of mills located in logging centers denoted by. The model developed in this study is not intended to replace these efforts but, rather, by incorporating data generated from these surveys, given planners a method to easily visualize alternative planning landscapes. From this map, we estimated the harvestable volume of each timber value class i.
To give a better sense of the size of a cell in forest management terms, a cell of 2, hectares would represent a d concession under the provisions of the PFML.
Our assumption in the model is that the government is able to use an unspecified nondistortionary royalty instrument that does not influence harvest behavior to extract rents to the point that concessionaires just earn profits equivalent to those of operating legally on private lands.
The parameter is assigned a priori to be either binary 0, 1 or some other score assigned by the public planner, in the case the planner has information about the relative value of different stands for a given land use alternative. Further research should include forest dynamics to better incorporate the long-term growth and yield of the harvested forests.
Same effect is valid for biodiversity conservation. Logging in natural forests is a vital economic activity in the Brazilian Amazon. Figures 4 a and 4 b show the share of the profits for loggers and 12184 under this assumption.
Due to the lack of suitable data, audit costs were assumed to be equivalent to certification audit costs, which vary depending on the size of the management unit. However, to simulate the PPF curves and investigate the tradeoffs among competing land uses, we used annual profits i. However, we do permit the planner to specify the minimum number of stands allocated to each land use within the forest.
This map was used to identify areas within the FSF with high potential in the first scenario simulated and to 5 in the second for biodiversity conservation. Volume harvested within 22006 State Forest by d value class with an 1184 number of stands converted to other land uses from current logging centers a and from closer urban centers b.
Figures 6 c and 6 dotherwise, show the same curves considering the scenario with differentiated weights among stands with potential for community use and biodiversity conservation.
The importance of 1284 study is demonstrated in two ways. To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Forestry Research, enter your email address in the box below. In the case of FSF, the decrease in the NPV caused by an increase in the proportion of the State Forest dedicated to community use is larger than the decrease caused by biodiversity conservation, ceteris paribus.
Next, we need to incorporate land uses other than timber concessions into the model.
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Figures 2 and 3 show what happens to the number of stands assigned for logging and harvested volume when logging is performed by firms located in the current logging centers Figures 2 a and 3 a and if mills move to closer cities Figures 3 a and 3 b. We also estimated the rent distribution between concessionaires and the government.
The datasets used span the entire Brazilian Amazon, implying that the analysis can be repeated for any public forest planning effort within the region. However, illegal and unplanned logging is exhausting forests rapidly. To meet this end, we combine the best available spatially explicit data on expected logging profits, biodiversity, and potential for community use for use within a land use optimization model.
Each stand is also assumed to have a potential coefficient for each land use alternative. Developing this information is an important priority for public forests planning. In our study, we consider community use and biodiversity conservation as possible alternative uses.
In the first set of model runs that follow, we first assume that the spatial distribution of mills remains static. The experience across other countries shows that this assumption is extremely optimistic as governments have generally captured only a small proportion of the total rents [ 2829 ].
International Journal of Forestry Research
Areas forbidden for logging were assigned for harvesting in the model. Every three years the interval represented byBrazilian law requires independent audits of concessionaire performance within the concessions.
The second scenario investigates the impacts of varying the weights lwi stands potentially assigned to nonlogging land uses. As ofCalha Norte contained 64 million hectares of protected areas.