Biochemical changes during the development of witches’ broom: the most important disease of cocoa in Brazil caused by Crinipellis perniciosa. Scarpari LM(1). Crinipellis perniciosa is the cause of witches’ broom disease of cocoa, a serious problem in South America. The aim of the project was to develop a measure of. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to determine the genome size and characterize karyotypic differences in isolates of the cacao biotype of.

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Phytotoxin production by Crinipellis perniciosa. It has not yet been grown on artificial media but mycelium of similar appearance has been obtained by inoculating cocoa callus with basidiospores. Basidiospores are discharged at night mainly between However, in this further programme using yielding ability as the main criterion in a situation of high pathogen pressure, there was also a bias towards witches’ broom resistance and some clones, such as ICS 95, showed considerable resistance expressed as fewer developed brooms.

The lesion arising from an infection from P. Hypertrophied fruit infected when young become carrot shaped top.

crinipelllis Taxonomic Tree Top of page Domain: For the primary removal, a number of criteria for selection of the correct time can be specified.

A second biotype L-biotype was found on liana vines in Ecuador; [5] subsequently the host was identified as Arrabidaea verrucosa Bignoniaceae but witches’ broom symptoms have not been observed on this host.

Maddison AC; Mogrovejo E, Its cells contain one nucleus and it is considered to be monokaryotic. Predicting the cost-benefits of sanitation pruning for the management of witches’ broom disease. Proceedings of the 10th International Cocoa Research Conference.

Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches’ broom disease of cacao)

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page Witches’ broom is caused by a basidiomycete, which was originally named Marasmius perniciosus Stahel, The L-biotype, in contrast to its relatives exhibits a bifactorial outcrossing mechanism. Symptoms on other parts of the tree are normally clearly recognisable. They do not absciss and eventually dry in place.


Detailed description of symptoms of witches’ broom disease of cocoa caused by Crinipellis perniciosa. In shaded plantings where variations of crinipellia are less violent, the selected pruning treatment should be applied towards the end of the rainy season.

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Hypocotyl broom Apparently healthy seeds from pods infected with M. This has been a significant inhibitory factor to the development of fungicide usage. Description Top of page After Holliday, Hyphae with clamp connections. Disease symptoms only become apparent once the seed has germinated Cronshaw and Evans, You may be, however, able to change your browser settings to cause your browser to refuse cookies in general, block third party cookies or to indicate when a cookie is being sent.

The beneficial effects of such practices on yield and the time taken for recovery have only been partially investigated. Pods are most susceptible in the period of greatest growth, which means that fungicide residues are diluted by surface expansion. Present status of witches’ broom disease of cocoa in Trinidad.

Simple search Basic search Advanced search Search type specimens Search thesaurus Search bibliography. As the flush develops it becomes more resistant, and inoculations of shoots with hardened leaves and a dormant bud are usually unsuccessful.

Plant Pathology, 39 3: Specimens and strains links: Most browsers are initially set up to accept cookies, since this is required by most website owners in order to access their sites. In cultivated cocoa, there appears to be a complete range in severity of symptoms depending on pathotype and cocoa clone.


Fitopatologia Brasileira, 11 4: Cultural Control or Phytosanitation Sanitation is based on the concept that by removing infected plant parts the production of inoculum will cease, or at least be reduced to low levels, depending on the efficiency of the removal. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The probability of significant reductions will be smaller in areas where disease incidence is high, but the possibilities for yield increases will be greater than in low-incidence areas.

Discharged basidiospores germinated and were infectious to pre-germinated cocoa seeds causing hypocotyl hypertrophy plus root and shoot reduction Almeida et al.

Run Crinipelli 1 and Dr. Cocoa Growers’ Bulletin No. Tropical Pest Management, 32 1: A monographic study of the genera Crinipellis and Chaetocalathus. In this crinipellus, the contents of soluble sugars, amino acids, alkaloids, ethylene, phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, pigments, malondialdehyde MDAglycerol, and fatty acids were crinipelis in cocoa Theobroma cacao shoots during the infection and development of WBD.

However, accumulated cushion infection and death from witches’ broom can also be a threat to cocoa production.

Pileus crimson tinted, generally faintly, becoming paler with age; conspicuous red-black spot in centre, with others radially arranged and of the same colour; radially grooved, campanulate, later expanded and often with permiciosa concave margin and a convex but umbilicate centre, or convex to flat with a depressed centre; mm, mostly mm diameter; if dry swells out when moistened.

Total productivity on vegetative brooms varies from about 5 to over basidiomata per broom.